(Lecture 1) :
• Introducing the book
This is a commentary written by Fadhil Miqdaad on the book of Allamah Hilli.
Allamah Hilli, who was one of our great Ulama, was born in the city of Hillah, on the 29th of Ramadhan, 648. His teachers were his father, his uncle, and then Khaji Nasir al-Din Tusi. It is said that he became Mujtahid before he became baligh. He wrote many books. One of his books is a kind of summary that he did on a book written by Sheikh Tusi. Sheikh Tusi wrote a book on dua, called Misbahul Mutahajjid. Allamah Hilli summarized and organized it in 10 sections, and named it Mukhtasar Minhaj al-Salah fi Mukhtasar al-Misbah. Then he thought that he should add one more section to these 10 sections. So he added babul Hadi ‘Ashar, means the eleventh chapter. About 20 commentaries were written on this chapter. We are to study the one written by Fadhil Miqdaad.
• About science of Kalam
Why this science has been called ‘Kalam’? There are different theories. One of them is because one of the early questions that was raised in this science was about kalam of Allah, whether word of God is eternal or it was created. The other theory is that scholars used to say, “kalamuna is …” which means, “our view about this issue is…” So the science of Aqaid was known as the science of Kalam.
• Necessity of Achieving Ma’rifah
Allah did not created the world in vain, without purpose. He himself has mentioned those ends:
وَمَا خَلَقْتُ الْجِنَّ وَالْإِنسَ إِلَّا لِيَعْبُدُونِ
I did not create the jinn and the humans except that they may worship Me. (51:56)
There is a hierarchy of purposes. It is compulsory for every intelligent to respond the lord of the world. And because it is not possible to serve Him without knowing Him with certainty. So the responsibility of Ulama is to help people know Him by compiling good introductory texts for them to read. One of them is Babul Hadi ‘Ashar, a work of our master and scholar, Allamah Hilli. This text, although very brief, is full of knowledge.
Contingent beings ممکنات
Imperfect beings ناقصات
Overwhelming, abundant المتظاهرات
What is confusing شبهات
Too difficult متعسّر
Make alert تنبیه
To Guide ارشاد
Make things clear تنقیح
Make things precise تدقیق
One who relies (give a report) مقرّر
One who refines مهذّب
What blocks صادّ